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8 Apr 2020, 23:38:04 (24 hours ago)
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8 Apr 2020, 23:33:25 (24 hours ago)
Medical works in the theories of finances and credit, according
to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and
The definition associated with totality of the economical relations formed in the process
of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money resources is
widely spread. For example , in "the general theory of finances" there are two definitions of funds:
1) "... Finances reflect affordable relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution plus redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage".
This description is given relatively to the problems of Capitalism, when cash-commodity
relationships gain universal character;
2) "Finances represent the formation of central ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions from the widened further production".
This description is brought without showing the
environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and
think expedient to make some standards.
First, finances overcome the range of distribution and redistribution services
of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances.
Furthermore, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is
the part of financial domain, belongs not to
the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to
the distribution of already developed value.
This latest first seems to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost associated with a ready product (that is to the worth too) and after
its realization, in fact it is set the depression fund.
The source is taken into account before hand as being
a depression kind in the consistence from the ready products cost price.
Second, main goal of finances is much wider then "fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of problems for the widened further production".
Finances exist on the state level as well as
on the manufactures and branches' level too, and in such conditions, once the
most part of the manufactures are not state.
V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: "real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is usually realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit".
V. M. Rodionova makes an emphasize of finances, as distributing relationships, when D.
S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances.
Although both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of
the particular funds of money sources, that comes out
of the following definition of the finances: "financial cash relations, which types in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the nationwide wealth and total social item, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and use of the state cash incomes and financial savings in the widened further production, within the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests".
In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
"Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the particular funds of money sources of the state plus socialistic manufactures are formed with regard to guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and ethnic level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests".
"The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic community. And the totality of economical relationships arisen between state, manufactures plus organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of money funds make financial relations".
As we've seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ
In every talked about position there are:
1) expression associated with essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;
2) the definition of budget, as the system of the creation plus usage of funds
of cash resources on the level of phenomenon.
3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value
of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and cost-effective relations, for servicing of which it really is used.
If refuse the preposition "socialistic" in the definition of finances,
we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet
with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective "socialistic", in the modern economical literature.
We may give such an elucidation: "finances signify cash resources of production plus usage, also cash relations made an appearance in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further creation of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and fulfillment of the social requests".
in this elucidation of finances like D. S i9000.
Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov's definitions, following the traditional inheritance, all of
us meet with the widening of the economic foundation. They
concern "distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial submission of the value of national wealth".
This particular latest is very actual, relatively towards the process of privatization and the transition to
privacy and is periodically used in exercise in different countries, for example , Great Britain plus France.
"Finances - are money sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, use, also economical relations, which are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical subjects, movement of cash sources, cash circulation and usage".
"Finances are the system of economical relations, which are associated with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources".
We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z.
Body and R. Merton's basis manuals. "Finance - it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The particular financial decisions are characterized by the particular expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into consideration beforehand neither by those who obtain decisions nor any other person".
"Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions... which learns systematically the topics of distribution of the cash sources relatively to the time factor; additionally, it considers quantitative models, with the help of that the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of each financial decisions take place".
These basic conceptions and quantitative versions are
used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of
budget, we meet with the following doctrine from the
financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction from
the people's requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (firms,
also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling
this basic function.
For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known meanings about finances, credit and expense, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments
and credit into the one total component.
Some researcher thing that credit score is the consisting part
of finances, when it is discussed from the position of substance and category.
The other, more several group proves, that an economical category
of credit exists parallel to the affordable category of
finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit's existence in the consistence
N. E. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category
of credit and notes it is only its "characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners' rights".
N. D. Barkovski replies that working of money created an economical
basis with regard to apportioning finances and credit being an independent category and gave increase to the
credit and financial relationships. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and
credit, as the science about funds has business with the research of such economical relations, which trim upon cash flow and credit.
Let's take a discuss the most spread definitions associated with credit.
in the modern publications credit score appeared to be "luckier", then finances.
For instance , we meet with the following definition of credit score in the finance-economical
dictionary: "credit could be the loan in the form of cash and product with the conditions of returning, generally, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economical relations between the creditor and borrower".
This is the conventional definition of credit.
In the earlier dictionary from the economy we read: "credit could be the system of economical relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash plus material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of returning and paying percent".
In the manual of the political economy published below reduction of V.
A. Medvedev the following definition is given: "credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, work collective and workers during development and usage of the loan money, under the terms of paying existing and returning, during transmission associated with sources for the temporal usage and accumulation".
Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological guides of political economy: "credit may be the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, companies and population. Credit has an objective character. It is used for providing widened further production of the state as well as other needs. Credit differs from budget by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition".
We meet with the following description if "the course of economy": "credit is an economical category, which symbolizes relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money way to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation associated with credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical plus money relations, the form of which is the money relation".
Following scientists give slightly different definitions of
"Credit - is a loan by means of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor beneath the conditions of returning and paying out the percentage rate by the borrower".
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt
for the defined conditions by the price of fixed percentage.
Therefore, a credit is the loan by means of money or commodity.
In the process of the loan's movement, a definite relations are formed between a
creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who provides certain cash as
a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that will credit is
giving money funds of commodity as a debt, for many terms and material provision under the price of
firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economical relations between the
participants of the process of capital development.
Necessity of the credit relations is usually conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second part, existence of requests of them.
8 Apr 2020, 23:33:24 (24 hours ago)
8 Apr 2020, 23:33:23 (24 hours ago)
8 Apr 2020, 23:33:22 (24 hours ago)